- The latest findings place it in the 1st century
- The 1988 Carbon 14 study were samples collected from a single location. This location includes repairs done to the Shroud after the fire of Chambery in 1352.
- Composition of the cloth: material of the threads consistent with known 1st century plants.
- 3:1 herringbone pattern known/documented in other 1st century textiles.
- “Faults” found in the weave consistent with 1st century techniques.
- The dimensions of the cloth match the cubit measurement used by Jewish law and custom for a burial cloth
- Blood is rare AB type+
- Blood plasma around the blood stains is revealed under UV light. (something they didnt know how to do in the 1300’s)
- Stains match descriptions of the Passion of Jesus in the Gospels.
- Blood particles reveal a high content of bilirubin. Significant for two reasons: Consistent with bodily response to extreme trauma (so a dead body could not have been used to create the image). Blood with high bilirubin content stays red over time and does not turn dark brown (consistent with stains on the Shroud).
- Pollen grains unique to Judea.
- Roman coins on the eyes of image—minted by Pontius Pilate in 29 A.D.
- Correspondences with another relic, the Sudarium Christi: similar pollen grains; 124 exact matches to wounds on the Shroud; the same AB blood type.
- There are four other dating tests & the results indicate a midpoint average of 50 A.D. (plus or minus 200 years) with a 96% confidence level.
- There is no other known image like it.
- Shroud is a precise photographic negative (on non-photographically sensitive cloth).
- Image not produced by paint, dye, vapors, or scorching.
- Image is restricted to uppermost part of fibrils (cause is rapid dehydration).
- The blood imprints precede the formation of the image.
- 3D imaging on Shroud (e.g. bones inside the hand and flesh surrounding the bone). It has been used to produce a 3D sculpture.
- The only known explanation for the formation of the image is an intense burst of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (equivalent to the output of 14,000 excimer lasers) emitted from every three-dimensional point of the body in the Shroud
- The Sudarium Christi is thought to be the cloth referred to in John’s gospel as “rolled up in a place by itself.” This cloth, kept in the Cathedral of Oviedo in northern Spain, does not bear an image, but has 124 matching blood and serum stains consistent with those on the Shroud and the same blood type (AB). The length of the nose on both cloths is 8 centimeters (3 inches). These similarities indicate the high probability that they touched the same face: a crucified man who was crowned with thorns. Similar pollen grains are found on the Shroud and the Sudarium
From Turin Research Papers:
And from our newer technologies, we have been able to take that 3D image on the shroud and take all of the microscopic marks (from lashings), blood paths, even from what the cap of thorns did all from this cloth and show you who laid into the Shroud Of Turin.
So all of this data was staged, setup, (not) painted, though through hundreds of years in advance using technologies not created yet, but still assuming we will have created these technologies in the future, staged consistent pollen for the area Christ was at, even plants ONLY found in THAT specific area, meticulously placed REAL rare blood in the SAME areas that would forensically show someone who was beaten and crucified.
Margaret died around the beginning of 1531 (BSTS Newsletter, no. 51, June 2000, pg. 43), at which time her last will and testament was executed. We propose that it included the excision of the 5 ½ inch x 3 ½ inch section. Supporting this timeline of events is empirical testing by Adler, which compelled him to conclude that the “missing panels were already missing at the time of the 1532 fire” (Adler, 1997:104).
Since this would have been prior to the addition of the backing cloth in 1534, a more sophisticated patch-type repair would have been necessary to prevent unraveling of the raw edges.
The second is the more pronounced discoloration extending only into the area that we have designated as the medieval patch. According to Louise Harner of the Albany International Research Company, which specializes in textile analysis, inconsistent discoloration in heat-exposed fabrics can be due to different thread types or different preparations, including the addition of various oils and dyes (Albany International Research Company, 2000).
This observation is supported by the 1982 discovery of starch on a thread from the 1973 Raes samples. Starch was, in fact, used by medieval restorers for invisible mending (Petrosillo and Marinelli, 1996:149). Harner further noted that cotton’s lower scorch threshold, as compared to linen’s, supports the notion that fabric containing cotton may disproportionately darken compared to pure linen (Harner, 2000, August 2).
The third and most compelling of the anomalies is the existence of a subtle vertical seam directly below the end point of the excised area and proceeding down to the section we have designated as the 16th century patch (see Figure 5). Does this seam indicate the connecting point of the patch to the main Shroud?
A blinded analysis of a photograph of the Zurich C-14 sample, by Thomas Ferguson & Co. Ltd, world renowned makers of Double Damask Linen, resulted in their perception that the sample was “touched up to prevent unraveling.” They further observed, “We have to say that we see the twill pattern clearly on both sides, but still there is something different left versus right.” (Ferguson & Co., 2000)
In a second blinded examination of photographs of both the Zurich and uncut C-14 samples, European-trained weaver David Pearson, owner of the French Tailors in Columbus, Ohio, immediately recognized the disparate weave pattern and differences in thread size, stating “there is no question that there is different material on each side…It is definitely a patch.” [(referring to what we have highlighted in
Figure 2 as the pink section)] (French Tailors, 2000). He stated that medieval European weavers would typically try to match the original cloth and then hand-stitch approximately ½ inch of new material into the old, such that it was invisible to all but the trained eye. This would ensure the long-term integrity of the material, while maintaining aesthetic consistency throughout the fabric. This type of detail to repairs would be consistent with the wealth and devotion of the Savoy family, who owned the Shroud at the time.
In a third blinded analysis of the Zurich C-14 sample, by Albany International, Louise Harner remarked that “the float is different on either side of the sample” (Albany International Research Company, 2000).
It forms a thick/thin, thick/thin pattern on the right side, whereas the left is much more consistent throughout (see Figure 6). This is probably due to the fact that each side of the pattern was woven independently, possibly corroborating Pearson’s belief that part of the sample was a patch.